NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Social Science

In this page, you will find Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Class 10 History NCERT Solutions which will help you in completing your homework on time. It will improve your learning process and you will get to know about various important things like Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement. Chapter 2 Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions are updated as per the latest syllabus of CBSE.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India

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Page No: 74

1. Explain:
(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Solution

(a) The sense of oppression and exploitation became a common bond for many different groups. The people began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism. Thus, the growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to anti-colonial movements.

(b) The First World War led to a huge increase in defence expenditures which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. Custom duties were raised and Income tax was introduced. There was widespread anger in the rural area due to forced recruitment of soldiers. This caused widespread anger among rural and common people. The hardships of people did not ended after the war. Thus, they united under leaders to find a new way of struggle.

(c) The government passed the Rowlatt Act in the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919 against the united opposition of the Indian members. The Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities. It allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. Thus, Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.

(d) In February 1922, at Chauri Chaura, a group of peaceful Indian demonstrators turned violent. They burnt alive 22 policemen. When Mahatma Gandhi came to know about it, he decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt that the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.

2. What is meant by the idea Satyagraha?

Solution

The idea of satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence. Thus non-violence is the supreme dharma.

3. Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission

Solution

(a) Today, 13 April - Baisakhi. A large crowd of people had gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh. Some came to protest against the government’s Rowlatt Act. Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. Being from outside the city, many villagers were unaware of the Martial Law that had been imposed. Gen. Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd killing hundreds.
His object was to ‘produce a moral effect’ to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
After the massacre, the wounded were left without medical help. The number of exact casualties is not known. It is an example of oppressive rule by the Imperialist Power.

(b) Lahore, 30th October 1928: Today Simon Commission to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and to submit a detailed report on reforms, reached Lahore. It is really strange that though object of the Commission is to look into an Indian problem but no Indian has been appointed as its member. All the members were Britishers. This is a gross injustice. Indians must raise their voice against it and resist the Commission at all levels so that the British government may include Indians in the Commission.
Thus, today people gathered at the station. Lala Lajpat Rai and others led the procession and raised slogans, “Simon Go Back”. There was a clash between police and protesters. Lala Lajpat Rai was hit near his heart and felt pain.

4. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.

Solution

In Germany, Germania became the symbol of the German nation. In visual representation, she is shown as wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
There are two images of Bharat Mata one by Abanindranath Tagore and the second by another artist. In the image by Tagore, Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure. She has been shown as calm, composed, divine and spiritual. She is shown also as dispensing learning food and clothing. Abanindranath Tagore tried to develop a style of painting that could be seen as truly Indian.
In the second figure, Bharat Mata is shown with a Trishul, standing beside a lion and an elephant both symbols of power and authority. This figure is a contrast to the one painted by Abanindranath Tagore.

Discuss

1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.

Solution

The different social groups that joined the Non-cooperation Movements of 1921 were the urban middle class comprising lawyers, teachers and headmasters, students, peasants, tribals and workers.
• Peasants, Tribal and workers joined the movement from the countryside. They did so with hopes of self-emancipation. Peasants rebelled against talukdars and landlords, who demanded high rents and had to do begar or free labour.
• Tribal peasants - They revolted against the enclosure of large forest tracts by the British government, which left them devoid of a livelihood as well as traditional rights.
• Plantation workers - They took part in the agitation hoping they would get the right to move freely in and outside the plantations and get land in their own villages.

2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.

Solution

• On 31 January 1930, he had sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands.
• Some of these were of general interest while others were specific demands of different classes, from industrialists to peasants. the most unusual of the demand was the abolishment of the salt tax.
• The Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism because it was done in revolt against a commodity-salt, used by the rich and the poor alike. The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production was a severely oppressive administrative move.
• Gandhi’s letter was an ultimatum. According to which if the demands were not fulfilled by 11th March, the congress would launch a civil disobedience campaign.
• Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. So, Gandhi stated his famous salt march accompanied by 79 of his trusted volunteers.
• The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhi’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufactured salt by boiling seawater. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

3. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.

Solution

I participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement which was called by Gandhiji. I thought by participating, I could be a part of the nation making process. So, at the call of Gandhiji, I couldn't resist myself. Revolting against my family traditions, and I became an active member of the movement. It was a proud moment for me to participate in Gandhi's Civil Disobedience Movement.

4. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?

Solution

Political leaders differed sharply over the question of separate electorates because of differences in opinion. Many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, demanding a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils. They believed political empowerment would resolve the problems of their social disabilities. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar disagreed with Mahatma Gandhi at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for the Scheduled Castes. Gandhiji believed that separate electorates for the Scheduled Castes would slow down their integration into the society.
After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of Hindu majority.

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