NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Nationalist Movement in Indo-China

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Nationalist Movement in Indo China Social Science

Nationalist Movement in Indo-China Class 10 History has been removed from the updated curriculum of CBSE however it will be useful in understanding the development of nationalism in Vietnam and how it fought against the superpower. NCERT Solutions for Nationalist Movement in Indo-China is best way through which you can get to know about all the important points provided in the chapter.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Nationalist Movement in Indo-China

Write in Brief

Page No: 52

1. Write a note on:

(a) What was meant by the 'civilising mission' of the colonisers
(b) Huynh Phu So

Solution

(a) The colonisers such as Britain and France considered themselves as superior to the people of the colonies. They thought that it was their duty to 'civilise the backward people. Europe had developed the most advanced civilisation. Hence, it became the duty of the Europeans to introduce modern ideas into the colony.

(b) Huynh Phu So was the founder of a religious movement called Hoa Hao. This movement drew on religious ideas popular in the anti-French uprisings of the 19th century. Huynh Phu So performed miracles and helped the poor. He criticised the useless expenditures. He also opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium. The French tried to suppress the Hoa Hao Movement. They declared Huynh Phu So as mentally ill, and put him in a mental asylum. They also sent many of his followers to concentration camps.

2. Explain the following:
(a) Only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations.
(b) The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta.
(c) The government made the Saigon Native Girls School take back the students it had expelled.
(d) Rats were most common in the modern, newly built areas of Hanoi.

Solution

(a) Only one-third of the students in Vietnam would pass the school-leaving examinations because the French colonial administration followed a deliberate policy of failing students in their final year examinations so that they could not qualify for better-paid jobs. Only the wealthy Vietnamese could afford enrollment in these expensive schools, and to add to that, very few would pass the school-leaving examinations.

(b) The French began building canals and draining lands in the Mekong delta for increased cultivation. This was done under a garb to “civilise” Vietnam on a European model, but it was actually an economic idea meant to increase rice production and subsequent export of rice to the international market.

(c) The principal of Saigon Native Girls School expelled a Vietnamese girl student when she refused to vacate the seat for a French student. The angry students protested against this but they too were expelled leading to a further spread of open protests. Seeing the situation, the government decided to control the intensity of the protests by making the school take back the students.

(d) Rats were most common in the modern, newly built areas of Hanoi because the modern and apparently hygienic sewage system provided ideal breeding grounds for rodents apart from being a good transport system as well, for the rats. Sewage from the old city was drained out into the river or overflowed in the streets during heavy rains. The large sewers now became a protected breeding and living space for rats. Hanoi, despite its “modernity”, became the chief cause of the plague in 1903.

3. Describe the ideas behind the Tonkin Free School. To what extent is it a typical example of colonial ideas in Vietnam?

Solution

The ideas behind the Tonkin Free School were predominantly based on policies of westernization. Students were taught science, hygiene and French, and were encouraged to adopt Western styles of dressing.
This school was a typical example of colonial ideas in Vietnam on account of the aforementioned. It rejected traditional Vietnamese education and lifestyle, and promoted western ideals and living.

4. What was Phan Chu Trinh’s objective for Vietnam? How were his ideas different from those of Phan Boi Chau?

Solution

Phan Chu Trinh’s objective for Vietnam was to make it a democratic republic, along the western ideals of liberty. He accused the French of not following their own national ideals, and demanded for the setting up of legal and educational institutions alongside the development of agriculture and industries.
Phan Boi Chau wanted to use monarchy to drive out the foreign enemy, France while Phan Chu Trinh disagreed on this term of monarchy as he believed in overthrowing the monarchy to promote popular rights.

Discuss

1. With reference to what you have read in this chapter, discuss the influence of China on Vietnam's culture and life.

Solution

Vietnam was a part of the powerful empire of China. Even when an independent country was established, its rulers continued to maintain the Chinese system of government as well as Chinese culture.
• Vietnam was also linked to what has been called the maritine silk route that brought in goods, people and ideas.
• The elites in Vietnam were educated in Chinese and Confucianism. A Vietnamese nationalist, Phan Boi Chau’s most influential book, 'The History of the Loss of Vietnam' was written under the strong influence and advice of Chinese reformer Qichao.
• In 1911, the monarchy in China was overthrown and a Republic was set up. This inspired Vietnamese students and they organised the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam.

2. What was the role of religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam?

Answer

Religious groups played a very significant role in the development of anti-colonial feeling in Vietnam.
• Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mix of Buddhism, Confucianism and local customs. Christianity looked down upon their reverence for the supernatural.
• In 1868, the Scholars’ Revolt protested against the tyrannical spread of Christianity. However, the French crushed the movement but this uprising served to inspire other patriots to rise up against them.
• The Hoa Hao movement in 1939 under the leadership of Huynh Phu So gained great popularity in the fertile Mekong delta area which drew on religious ideas popular in anti-French uprisings of the nineteenth century. The French tried to suppress the movement by declaring Huynh Phu So mad. Finally, the French authorities exiled him to Laos and sent many of his followers to concentration camps.

These religious movements were successful in arousing anti-imperialist tendencies in the Vietnamese people.

3. Explain the causes of the US involvement in the war in Vietnam. What effect did this involvement have on life within the US itself?

Solution

The US got involved in the war in Vietnam because it feared that a communist government would come to power in Vietnam after the National Liberation Front formed a coalition with the Ho Chi Minh government in the north, against Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime. US policy-planners feared a spread of communism to other countries in the area. This involvement in the Vietnam war affected life within the US itself because of widespread public dissent. Only university graduates were exempt from compulsory service in the army and this caused even more anger among the minorities and working-class families.

4. Write an evaluation of the Vietnamese war against the US from the point of
(a) a porter on the Ho Chi Minh trail.
(b) a woman soldier.

Solution

(a) The porters set out without fear on the Ho Chi Minh Trail which was a great expansive network of roads and footpaths. The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. In some parts supplies were transported in trucks, but mostly they were carried by porters, who were mainly women. These porters carried about 25 kilos on their backs, or about 70 kilos on their bicycles.They bravely walked on the narrow, dangerous roads that marked the treacherous routes. They also did not feel afraid of being shot down by aircraft guns.

(b) The Vietnamese woman displayed unbeatable courage in US-Vietnam war. They joined the struggle with the men and fought for the country. They were portrayed as young, brave and dedicated. They also nursed the wounded constructed underground rooms and tunnels. There were 1.5 million Vietnamese women in the regular army, the militia, the local forces and professional teams.

5. What was the role of women in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam? Compare this with the role of women in the nationalist struggle in India.

Solution

Women played an important part in the anti-imperial struggle in Vietnam. Women who rebelled against social conventions were idealized and rebel women of the past were likewise celebrated. Trieu Au was a popular figure in nationalist tales. In the 1960s, women were represented as brave soldiers and workers. They assisted in nursing wounded soldiers, constructing underground tunnels and fighting the enemy. Interestingly, between 1965 and 1975, 70-80% of the youth working on the Ho Chi Minh trail were women.
Compared to this very direct and active participation of Vietnamese women in the anti-imperial struggle, India women did not play a very dynamic role in the nationalist struggle of India against Great Britain. TThey participated in protest marches and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. They began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women. However, their role was not very dynamic and did not hold any position of authority.

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