NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World

You will find NCERT Solutions for Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World Class 10 History in this page which will be helpful in completing homework on time. You will get to know about various important points embedded in the chapter. Class 10 History NCERT Solutions of Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World will be useful in getting more marks in board examinations.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World

Write in Brief

Page No: 176

1. Give reasons for the following:
(a) Woodblock print only came to Europe after 1295.
(b) Martin Luther was in favour of print and spoke out in praise of it.
(c) The Roman Catholic Church began keeping an Index of Prohibited books from the mid-sixteenth century.
(d) Gandhi said the fight for Swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech, liberty of the press, and freedom of association.

Solution

(a) Woodblock print was invented around the sixth century in China. Marco Polo, a great explorer, had gone to China for exploration. In 1295 he returned to Italy and brought this knowledge with him. From Italy, this technology spread to other parts of Europe. By the early fifteenth century, woodblocks were being widely used in Europe to print textiles, playing cards and religious pictures with simple brief texts.

(b) In 1517, Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses criticising many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther’s writings were immediately reproduced in vast numbers and read widely. This led to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. Luther’s translation of the New Testament sold 5,000 copies within a few weeks. All this became possible due to printing technology. Deeply grateful to print, Luther said, ‘Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one.’

(c) Gandhi that the liberty of speech, liberty of press and freedom of association were three most powerful vehicles of expressing and cultivating public opinion. He was of the opinion that these freedoms were pre-requisites for attaining swaraj which meant self-rule.

2. Write short notes to show what you know about:
(a) The Gutenberg Press
(b) Erasmus's idea of the printed book
(c) The Vernacular Press Act

Solution

(a) The first printing press was developed by Johan Gutenberg in 1430s. He used the olive press as a model for the printing press and moulds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet. By 1448, he perfected his system. Gutenberg developed metal types for each of the 26 characters of the Roman alphabet. He devised a way of moving them around so as to compose different words of the text. This came to be known as the moveable type printing machine. It remained the basic print technology over the next 300 years. The Gutenberg press could print 250 sheets on one side per hour.

(b) Erasmus was a Latin scholar and a Catholic reformer. He expressed deep anxiety about printing. He was afraid that printing would lead to the circulation of books with rebellious ideas. He felt that although a few books can give useful information, the majority of books may be useless or give scandalous and irreligious ideas. Their number is so large that even valuable books lose their value.

(c) In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act was passed, modelled on the Irish Press Laws. It provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular press. From now on the government kept regular track of the vernacular newspapers published in different provinces. When a report was judged as seditious, the newspaper was warned, and if the warning was ignored, the press was liable to be seized and the printing machinery confiscated. Despite repressive measures, nationalist newspapers grew in numbers in all parts of India.

3. What did the spread of print culture in nineteenth century India mean to:
(a) Women
(b) The poor
(c) Reformers

Solution

(a) The spread of print culture in 19th century India benefitted Indian women through learning and education. Liberal husbands and fathers began educating their womenfolk at home, and sent them to schools when women’s schools were set up in the cities and towns after the mid-nineteenth century. Many journals began carrying writings by women, and explained why women should be educated. They also carried a syllabus and attached suitable reading matter which could be used for home-based schooling. Since social reforms and novels had already created a great interest in women’s lives and emotions, there was also an interest in what women would have to say about their own lives.

(b) The poor people benefitted from the spread of print culture because of the availability of books at a low price. Very cheap small books were brought to the markets in nineteenth-century Madras towns and sold at cross-roads, allowing poor people travelling to markets to buy them. Public libraries were set up from the early twentieth century, expanding the access to books. From the late nineteenth-century, cases of caste discrimination were published. Writers like Jyotiba Phule, B.R. Ambedkar and E.V. Ramaswamy wrote on caste discrimination and their writings were read by people all over India. Mill workers wrote to show the links between caste and class exploitation. All over India, they set up libraries to educate themselves.

(c) The coming of print culture meant that the reformers could now spread their ideas more quickly among the masses. In nineteenth-century India, several evil customs and practices were an integral part of the social system. The social and religious reformers campaigned against evils like sati, miserable condition of widows, female infanticide, child marriage, purdah system, caste system, untouchability with the help of newspapers and magazines. They advocated the values of human dignity and social equality. Thus, the print media played a vital role in reforming the society at large.

Discuss

1. Why did some people in 18th century Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism?

Solution

• People in Europe during the 18th century thought that print culture would bring enlightenment and would led to end of despotism.
• Print culture led to easily and cheaply available literature and therefore could not be restricted to the upper classes.
• This caused fear among the clergy and the monarch as they felt that it would mark an end to the blind devotion to the ruler.
• Rousseau and Voltaire’s ideas of freedom, equality and brotherhood were reaching the common people and this created a new culture of dialogue and debate among the working class.

2. Why did some people fear the effect of easily available printed books? Choose one example from Europe and one from India.

Solution

Some people feared that if there was no control over what was printed and read then rebellious and irreligious thoughts might spread. If that happened the authority of valuable literature would be destroyed. Expressed by religious authorities and monarchs, as well as many writers and artists, this anxiety was the basis of widespread criticism of the new printed literature that had began to circulate.

Examples:

• Europe: The Roman Catholic Church in Europe tried to restrict the printed books through the Index of Prohibited Books.

(b) India: The Vernacular was imposed on people, which mainly restricted the Indian presses and local newspaper to write against their colonisers.

3. What were the effects of the spread of print culture for poor people in nineteenth-century India?

Solution

The effects of the spread of print culture for poor people in nineteenth-century India:
• Very cheap small books were brought to markets in nineteenth-century Madras towns and sold at crossroads, allowing poor people travelling to markets to buy them.
• Issues of caste discrimination began to be written about in many writings. Jyotiba Phule wrote about the injustices of the caste system.
• The support and encouragement of the social reformer, over-worked factory workers set up libraries for self-education, and some also published their own works like Kashibaba and Chhote Aur Bade Sawal.

4. Explain how print culture assisted the growth of nationalism in India.

Solution

The print culture immensely helped the growth in the growth of nationalism in India were:
• Indian press criticised the British policies and reported their oppressive policies.
• In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act was passed, modelled on the Irish Press Laws. It provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular press.
• Despite repressive measures, nationalist newspapers grew in numbers in all parts of India. They reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist activities.
• Nationalist feelings and revolutionary ideas were secretly spread by the dailies like - The Amrit Bazar Patrika, The Indian Mirror, Kesri, The Hindu, Bombay Samachar etc. Through these newspapers national leaders always tried to mobilize public opinion of Indian masses and encouraged people to participate in nationalist activities.

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