NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of Global World

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of Global World

Getting accurate answers of History chapters can be sometimes really tough. To solve this, you will find NCERT Solutions of Chapter 3 The Making of Global World Class 10 History in this page. This will improve your knowledge about the globalised world and how it taken shape. We will learn how foods, technology, tools travelled around the world and transform our daily lives. Chapter 3 The Making of Global World NCERT Solutions can be really helpful in scoring more marks in the board examinations.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of Global World

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Page No: 102

1. Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.

Solution

Two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century are:
• Example from the Americas: America had an abundant wealth of crops, minerals and precious metals like gold and silver. The Europeans enhanced their wealth from utilising the rich resources of gold and silver.
• Example from Asia: China exported pottery and silk to India and Southeast Asia in exchange of textile goods and spices.

2. Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.

Solution

By the mid-sixteenth century, the Portuguese and Spanish had started the conquest and colonisation of the Americas. The most powerful weapon of the Spanish conquerors was not a conventional military weapon at all. It was the germs such as those of smallpox that they carried on their person. Because of their long isolation, America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe. Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer.Once introduced, it spread deep into the continent, ahead even of any Europeans reaching there. It killed and decimated whole communities, paving the way for conquest.

3. Write a note to explain the effects of the following:
(a) The British government's decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
(b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa.
(c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War.
(d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
(e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.

Solution

(a) After the Corn Laws were scrapped, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country. British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated, and thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They shifted to cities and settled there, Many migrated to overseas in search of work.

(b) In the 1880s, the Rinderpest, a cattle disease arrived in Africa. Entering Africa in the East, rinderpest moved West ‘like a forest fire’, streached around Africa’s Atlantic coast in 1892. Cape (Africa’s southernmost tip) was also infested by that lethal disease just after five years. Along the way, rinderpest killed 90 per cent of the total cattle. The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods.
European colonisers monopolised the remaining cattle resources and strengthened their power. They forced the Africans into the labour market.

(c) The death and injuries reduced the able-bodied work force in Europe. Entire societies were also reorganised for war as men went to battle, women stepped in to undertake jobs that earlier only men were expected to do. Almost in every family some members had died during the war. Thus, with fewer numbers within the family, household incomes declined after the war.

(d) Between 1928 and 1934, there was a reduce in Indian imports and exports by nearly half. It had a major impact on the Indian economy, which led to the Great Depression. Wheat prices too fell by 50% during this time. The agricultural sector was badly hit by the Great depression compared to the urban areas, as it dominated the livelihoods in rural lands.

(e) There was a stimulation of world trade capital flow due to the decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries. Low wages in countries like China had made these countries attractive destinations for investments by foreign MNCs competing to capture world markets. The world’s economic geography has been transformed as countries such as India, China and Brazil have undergone rapid economic transformation. For example, India has followed policies of liberalisation and globalisation.

4. Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.

Solution

• Railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from faraway farms to final markets.
• Till the 1870s, live animals were shipped from America to Europe and then slaughtered. The refrigerated ships enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distances. With the growth in technology, the animals were slaughtered in America, Australia or New Zealand and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe.

5. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?

Solution

• The Bretton Woods Agreement was signed among the world powers in July 1944 at Mount Washington Hotel situated at Bretton Woods.
• The main aim was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world.
• The Bretton Woods Conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) to finance postwar reconstruction. The IMF and the World Bank are referred to as the Bretton Woods institutions or sometimes the Britton Woods twins.

Discuss

6. Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.

Solution

Dear Family.
I hope all of you are fine there.I have signed a contract that I will work for five years at a plantation and then return to India. I had thought that it would help us to escape poverty and oppression of the village. However, the contract was a fraud and these are not allowing me to return. The living conditions at the plantations are tough. We have to work for 14 long hours and have almost no rights. Workers can’t go on leave to meet the family to nearby villages without permission. Permission is hardly given. Most of the workers here belong to Bihar, central India and the dry regions of Tamil Nadu. There are few legal rights given to us. However, we have developed new art forms for expression.
Your Loving child,
ABC

7. Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.

Solution

Three types of movements or flows in international trade and commerce:
(i) Trade in goods like cloth and wheat.
(ii) Migration of people in search of employment.
(iii) Short and long term investments over long distances.

Examples of the involvement of India and Indians in each type of flow are given below:
(i) India had trade relations with several countries of the world since many centuries. Nearly five thousand years ago, the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation carried on international trade with
other prosperous regions such as Mesopotamia.
(ii) In the nineteenth century, hundreds of Indian indentured labourers migrated to other countries to perform labour in mines, plantations and construction projects.
(iii) During the British rule in India, several Europeans established their factories in India. As a result, the flow of capital involving India and the European countries began.

8. Explain the causes of the Great Depression.

Solution

• Agricultural overproduction was made worse by falling agricultural prices. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production and bring a larger volume of produce to the market to maintain their overall income. This worsened the glut in the market, pushing down prices even further. Farm produce rotted for a lack of buyers.

• In the mid-1920s, many countries financed their investments through loans from the US. While it was often extremely easy to raise loans in the US when the going was good. When Stock market crashed in 1929, it created panic among investors and depositors who stopped investing and depositing.

• In Europe, it led to the failure of some major banks and the currencies collapsed. The USA import duties were doubled in order to protect its economy.

9. Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?

Solution

G-77 countries is a group of developing countries that demanded a new international economic order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials, and better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

G-77 can be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twin as the IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of the industrial countries. They were not equipped to cope with the challenge of poverty etc. of the developing countries. Thus the developing countries formed the Group of 77 to demand a new international economic order (NIEO) to have real control over their natural resources, more development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials and have better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets.

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