NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Social Science

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Write in Brief

Page No: 28

1. Write a Note on:
a) Giuseppe Mazzini
b) Count Camilo de Cavour
c) The Greek War of Independence
d) The Frankfurt Parliament
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles

Solution

a) Giuseppe Mazzini: Mazzini was an Italian politician and revolutionary. He was born in Genoa in 1807. He sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. At the age of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He founded underground societies named ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles and ‘Young Europe’ in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German States. He believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So, Italy had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations.

b) Count Camilo de Cavour: Cavour was chief minister of Sardinia-Piedmont state who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859 and ultimately successful in the unification of Italy under King Victor Emmanuel II.

c) The Greek War of Independence: The Greek War of Independence mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated class in Europe. Greece was a part of the Ottoman Empire since the 15th century. In 1821 the Greeks struggled against this and a nationalist movement began. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many Western Europeans sharing sympathies for ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilization. They mobilized public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. The English poet Lord Byron organized funds and later went to fight in the war. Ultimately, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation.

d) The Frankfurt Parliament: Middle-class professionals, businessmen, wealthy artists and artisans came together to vote for an all-German National Assembly. They met at Frankfurt on 18 May, 1848, and 831 elected representatives walked to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul. They drafted a constitution for the German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament.  The king of Prussia rejected the crown offered by the deputies of parliament and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. As the middle-class members in the Parliament dominated, they resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support. The troops were called and the Assembly was also disbanded.

e) The role of women in nationalist struggles: The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years. Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this, they were denied suffrage during the election of the Assembly. When the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.

2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?

Solution

The steps taken to create a sense of collective identity amongst French people by the French revolutionaries were:
• Ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasising the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
• A new French flag, a tricolour.
• A new National Assembly elected by active citizens.
• New hymns, oaths and martyrs commemorated in the name of the nation.
• Centralised administrative system.
• Uniform system of weights, measures and abolition of internal customs.
• Discouraging regional dialects and promoting French as a common language of the nation.

3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?

Solution

Marianne and Germania were female allegories for the French and the German nation respectively.
• Marianne’s characteristics resembled that of Liberty and Republic, i.e. the red cap, the tricolour and the cockade. Marianne’s statues were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Her images were marked on coins and stamps.
• In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands
for heroism.

4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.

Solution

In 1848, middle class tried to create a nation-state out of the numerous German States. But the monarchy and the military got together to repress them and they gained support from the landowners of Prussia (the Junkers) too. Prussia soon became the leader of German unification movement. Its Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck was the architect of the process with support from Prussian army and Prussian bureaucracy. The unification process was completed after Prussia won wars with Austria, Denmark and France over seven years time. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.

5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?

Solution

In the territories conquered by Napoleon, he introduced a number of reforms as he had done
in France.
• In 1804 the Civil Code, also called Napoleonic Code, was introduced and it did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
• He simplified administrative divisions, abolished feudal system, and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
• In the towns, guild restrictions no longer remained. Transport and communication systems improved. Artisans, peasants, workers and new businessmen enjoyed the new-found freedom.

Discuss

1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

Solution

The 1848 revolution of the liberals meant a revolution that was led by the educated middle classes of Europe. The events that occurred in February 1848 in France had brought the abdication of the monarch and a republic had been proclaimed. In other parts of Europe such as Germany, Italy, Poland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, independent nation-states had not been formed. Hence, the men and women from the liberal middle classes demanded constitutionalism as well as national unification.
The ideas supported by the liberals were:
• Politically, the liberals supported the ideas of government by consent; the end of autocracy and clerical privileges; a constitution; and, a representative and parliamentary form of government.
• Socially, the liberals laid stress on the abolition of discrimination based upon birth.
• Economically, they wanted the inviolability of private property, the freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.

Solution

Three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe were:

• Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally became strong critics of reason and science in their glorified forms. The Romanticists were more focused on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings. They were aiming at creating a sense of shared collective heritage and common cultural part to serve as the basis of a nation.

• Folk songs, dances and poetry were regarded as the true spirit of the nation. So collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation-building. The vernacular language and the collection of local folklore were used to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. For example, Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.

• Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place but was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction. As a result, a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.

3. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.

Solution

Unification of Germany: In 1848, an attempt was made to unite different regions of the German Confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament but this initiative was suppressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military along with the help of large landowners of Prussia. After this, Chief minister of Prussia took the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. He fought three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France which ended in Prussian victory and thus completed the process of unification. In January I 871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed as the German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles. So, the unification of Germany was done with the help of army and Prussia became a dominant power.

Unification of Italy: In the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states. Of these, only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. Other were being ruled by dynasties like Habsburg and Bourbon dynasty. Also, the Italian language had many regional and local variations. In the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini sought to formulate a coherent programme for a unitary Italian republic. The revolutionary uprisings in 1831 and 1848 largely failed. Thus, the responsibility of uniting Italian states was now on King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia-Piedmont. The Chief Minister of Italy, Cavour led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He was able to conclude a diplomatic alliance with France. Also, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Also, a large number of armed volunteers, under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi, also joined the movement. In 1860, these troops marched into south Italy and the kingdom of Two Sicilies. These areas were liberated and later joined with Sardinia. In 1870, Rome was vacated by France and it became a part of Sardinia. Finally, Italy was unified in 1871.

4. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?

Solution

• In Britain the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution.
• The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions.
• As the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands. The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688.
• The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the 'United Kingdom of Great Britian' meant that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. Scotland's distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.
•  The Scottish highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.
• The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country. Catholic revolts against British dominance were suppressed. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
• The symbols of the new Britain - the British flag, the national anthem, the English language were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.

5. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?

Solution

• The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs.
• A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
• The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent.
• The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each-other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others.
• Power like Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary, etc., were keen on controlling the hold of other powers over the Balkans and each among them was keen to extend its own control over the area.

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