NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Work, Life and Leisure

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Work, Life and Leisure

If you're finding accurate NCERT Solutions of Work, Life and Leisure for Class 10 History then you're at right place. It will help you in getting more marks in the examinations. You can also prepare your own answers by taking help from these NCERT Solutions. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History provided here are detailed and accurate so you can check your answers also when in doubt. It will be helpful in knowing about the new topics and things.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Work, Life and Leisure

Write in Brief

1. Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the eighteenth century.

Solution

• The city of London was a powerful magnet for migrant populations, even though it did not have large factories. London was a city of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled artisans, workers,
soldiers, servants, casual labourers, street-sellers and beggars.

• There were five major types of industries in London. These were clothing and footwear, wood and furniture, metals and engineering, printing and stationery, precious products like watches and surgical instruments. These industries employed a large number of people.

2. What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between the nineteenth and the twentieth century? Explain the factors which led to this change.

Solution

Between the nineteenth and the twentieth century, changes in the kind of work available to women in London were primarily based on industrial and technological advancements. Most of them lost their industrial jobs and were forced to work at other places. Some women began to work as maid servants in the households and others also began to earn by lodging out rooms, tailoring, washing or making matchboxes.

3. How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the following? Illustrate with historical examples.
(a) A private landlord
(b) A Police Superintendent in charge of law and order
(c) A leader of a political party

Solution

(a) A private landlord: The existence of a large urban population proves beneficial to a private landlord as there would be greater number of individuals in need of a place to stay and can then rent out rooms at high rates. In nineteenth-century London, individual landowners made huge profits by taking advantage of the helplessness of the hoards of migrants in the city who needed a place to live.

(b) A Police Superintendent in charge of law and order: When population grew in London at a faster rate, the crime rate increased. In the 1870s, there were 20,000 criminals living in London. Police are responsible for maintaining the law and order. Therefore, the Police Superintendent faced many difficulties in maintaining law and order. The job of a policeman was made more complex in hunting down pick-pockets, thieves, cheats and tricksters whose numbers kept multiplying.

(c) A leader of a political party: Due to large urban population, there were several social problems, such as problems of housing, food, water, etc. A leader of a political party can easily draw large crowds to serve his political agenda. A political party and its leaders can mobilise the masses to support them in these political causes. For example, the strike of the poor in 1886 in London, the riots of late-1887 and the dock-workers' strike in 1889 in London were motivated by political leaders.

4. Give explanations for the following:
(a) Why well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century.
(b) Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.
(c) What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-nineteenth century.

Solution

(a) The well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the nineteenth century on account of three reasons: one-room houses of the poor came to be seen as the breeding ground of diseases, and hence, a threat to public health; fire hazards became a worry in these over-crowded, badly ventilated, unhygienic homes. Also, there was a widespread fear of social disorder, especially after the 1917 Russian Revolution. Housing schemes were undertaken to avoid a rebellion by the poor.

(b) Most of the people in the Bombay film industry were migrants who came from cities like Lahore, Calcutta and Madras. They had faced multiple difficulties as migrants in Bombay. There was an acute crisis of housing and water supply. More than 70 per cent of the working people (mostly migrants) lived in densely-populated chawls. They wanted to portray the plight of this class of people through films. Thus, a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.

(c) In mid-seventeenth century, the British administration replaced Surat with Bombay as its principal western port. Later, by the end of the nineteenth century, it had become an important administrative as well as industrial centre. With the growth of trade in cotton and opium, several traders, bankers, artisans and shopkeepers came to settle in Bombay. In 1854, the first cotton mill was established in Bombay. Due to increasing trade and commerce, and employment kept increasing this was a major factor for the expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-nineteenth century.

Discuss

1. What forms of entertainment came up in nineteenth century England to provide leisure activities for the people.

Solution

The forms of entertainment which came up in nineteenth-century England to provide leisure activities for the people were: 
• There was an annual ‘London Season' for the upper classes in London. Several cultural events, such as opera, theatre and classical music performances were organised in the this festive.
• Working classes met in pubs to drink, exchange news and sometimes organise for political action.
• People visited libraries, art galleries and museums.
• Music halls and later on, cinema houses became popular among the lower and middle classes.
• Industrial workers spent their holidays by the sea. The coasts gave them bright sunlight and fast-moving winds.

2. Explain the social changes in London which led to the need for the Underground railway. Why was the development of the Underground criticised?

Solution

After the Industrial Revolution, a large number of people began to come and settle in London in search of work. Due to which problems of housing, overcrowding, insanitation, pollution arose. The development of suburbs as a part of the drive to decongest London led to the extension of the city beyond the range where people could walk to work. However, there were no proper means of transport between London and the suburbs. Therefore, the underground railway was constructed.
The development of the Underground was criticised because:
• Some people were afraid to travel underground.
• Some people considered the underground railway a threat to good health. The atmosphere in railway compartments would be filled with sulphur, coal dust and foul fumes.
• Many travellers would smoke pipes. As a result, people would feel very warm and suffocated.
• Many people felt that the 'iron monsters' would add to the mess and pollution in the city.

3. Explain what is meant by the Haussmanisation of Paris. To what extent would you support or oppose this form of development? Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper, to either support or oppose this, giving reasons for your view.

Solution

Haussmanisation of Paris refers to the re-building of Paris by Baron Haussmann in the mid-eighteenth century. When Louis Napoleon III came to power, he appointed Haussmann as the chief architect of the new city. He laid out new streets, straight sidewalks, boulevards and open avenues, and planted full-grown trees. Haussmann’s architectural plans had positives as well as negatives. 

Support:
• The forcible reconstruction to enhance the beauty of a city and impose order led to the displacement of 350,000 people from the centre of Paris. This included many poor people who were now rendered homeless.

Opposition:
• Public works employed nearly one in five working people.
• Paris became a symbol of civic pride for the French and it became the nucleus of many new architectural, social and intellectual developments that influenced other parts of the world in the twentieth century.

4. To what extent does government regulation and new laws solve problems of pollution? Discuss one example each of the success and failure of legislation to change the quality of
(a) public life
(b) private life

Solution

Government laws play an important role in controlling the rates of pollution in a city. However, simply passing laws is not enough. They need to be properly enforced as well. It is also a fact that people tend to find ways of getting around laws. So, apart from legislations, government also needs to carry out intensive public awareness programmes aimed at educating the public about the need and ways of controlling pollution; and about how they too have a stake in environmental governance.
Public Life:
• Failure: The Underground railway enhanced transport, but caused the demolition of many houses, rendering their inhabitants homeless.
• Success: The British state used public funds to provide for entertainment forms such as museums, art galleries and libraries for the working classes.

Private Life:
• Failure: The availability of one-room tenements and no housing facilities for a major part of the industrial revolution time period caused the family to get divided into smaller units. There were even cases where rural people had to leave their families behind and live alone in the urban areas where they worked.
• Success: British administrative officials built houses in new suburbs for fulfilling the housing needs of the working classes.


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