NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture

Chapter 4 Agriculture NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography can be helpful in completing your notebook and understanding the concepts given in the chapter. It is very necessary to improve your knowledge about many topics like type of farming system, cropping pattern and major crops produced in India. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 will be useful in help in revising the chapter properly.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture

1. Multiple choice questions

(i) Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?
(a) Shifting Agriculture
(b) Plantation Agriculture
(c) Horticulture
(d) Intensive Agriculture
Sol. (b) Plantation Agriculture

(ii) Which one of the following is a rabi crop?
(a) Rice
(b) Gram
(c) Millets
(d) Cotton

Sol. (b) Gram

(iii) Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?
(a) Pulses
(b) Jawar
(c) Millets
(d) Sesamum

Sol. (a) Pulses

(iv) Which one of the following is announced by the government in support of a crop?
(a) Maximum support price
(b) Minimum support price
(c) Moderate support price
(d) Influential support price

Sol. (b) Minimum support price

2. Answer the following questions in 30 words.

(i) Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.

Solution

Tea is an important beverage crop.
Geographical conditions required for its growth:
• Tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil so rich in humus and organic matter.
• Temperature for growth 20°C to 30°C.
• Annual rainfall of 150 cm to 300 cm.
• Warm and moist-free climate all through the year.
• Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year.

(ii) Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.

Solution

Rice is a staple crop of India.
Regions, where it is produced, are plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and deltaic regions i.e., West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Tamil Nadu. In Punjab and Haryana, parts of Rajasthan and western Uttar Pradesh it is grown with the help of canal irrigation and tube wells.

(iii) Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.

Solution

• Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood etc., was introduced.
• Establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks to provide loans at lower rates of interest.
• Kissan credit cards, Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS).
• Special weather bulletins.
• Announcement of MSP, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops.

(iv) The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?

Solution

Land under cultivation has got reduced day by day which would lead to the reduction in net sown area under cereals and pulses. With the growing population of India, the declining food production may create a problem over country's future food security and it will face shortage of raw material for its agriculture based industries.

3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.

Answer

• The government prioritised collectivisation, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari system. 'Land reform' was the main focus of the First Five Year Plans.
• In the 1960s and 1970s, the Green Revolution and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were aimed at improving Indian agricultural productivity.
• During the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated. Under this, various technical and institutional reforms were introduced by the government for the benefit of farmers, for example, Minimum Support Price policy, provision for crop insurance, subsidy on agricultural inputs and resources such as power and fertilisers, Grameen banks, Kissan Credit Card, Personal Accident Insurance Scheme, and special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes like 'Krishi Darshan' on national television.

(ii) Describe the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture.

Solution

The impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture has been felt since colonial times.
• Raw cotton and spices were important export items from India.
• In 1917, Indian farmers revolted in Champaran against being forced to grow indigo in place of food grains, in order to supply dye to Britain’s flourishing textile industry.
Post Liberalisation, the farmers in India have been exposed to new challenges. Despite being an important producer of rice, cotton, rubber, tea, coffee, jute and spices our agricultural products are not able to compete with the developed countries because of the highly subsidised agriculture in those countries. Today. to make agriculture successful and profitable, proper thrust should be given to the improvement of the condition of marginal and small farmers. It is being alleged that green revolution has caused land degradation due to overuse of chemicals, drying aquifers and vanishing biodiversity. To counter  the negative effects of Green Revolution, developing and promoting organic farming, and diversifying cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops.

(iii) Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.

Solution

Rice is a Kharif crop grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and deltaic regions. It requires high temperatures (above 250C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In areas with less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation via canals and tube-wells.

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