NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Geography NCERT Solutions is useful in increasing concentration among students. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science is helpful in improving your marks in the examinations.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources

1. Multiple choice questions

(i) Which one of the following minerals are formed by the decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material?
(a) coal
(b) bauxite
(c) gold
(d) zinc
Sol. (b) bauxite

(ii) Koderma, in Jharkhand, is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?
(a) Bauxite
(b) Mica
(c) Iron ore
(d) Copper
Sol. (b) mica

(iii) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the strata of which of the following rocks?
(a) sedimentary rocks
(b) metamorphic rocks
(c) igneous rocks
(d) none of the above
Sol. (a) sedimentary rocks

(iv) Which one of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand?
(a) oil
(b) uranium
(c) thorium
(d) coal
Sol. (c) Thorium

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words.
(a) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals
(b) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.


(a) Ferrous minerals are in the category of metallic minerals that contain iron (Fe). The composition of iron varies from mineral to mineral. Pyrite is an example of a ferrous mineral. Non-ferrous minerals arc the metallic minerals that do not contain iron (Fc). Gold (Au) is an example of a non-ferrous mineral.

(b) Conventional sources of energy are generally exhaustible and polluting, example includes firewood, coal and petroleum. Non – conventional sources of energy are usually inexhaustible and nonpolluting, example includes solar, wind, tidal and atomic energy.

(ii) What is a mineral?


A mineral is a homogeneous, naturally occurring substance with a definable interior structure. Minerals are formed by a combination of elements, and the mining of some minerals is very profitable.

(iii) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?


Minerals generally occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks. In most cases, they are formed when minerals in liquid or molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface, they cool and solidify as they rise in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger is called lodes.

(iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?


Mineral resources need to be conserved because they are limited. It takes billions of years for them to be replenished in nature. The continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs of extraction and a decrease in quality as well as quantity.

3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(a) Describe the distribution of coal in India.


The distribution of coal in India is more abundant on the eastern side of the country. In India, coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages—Gondwana and tertiary. While Gondwana coal is about 200 million years old, tertiary deposits are approximately 55 million years old.

The major resources of Gondwana (metallurgical) coal are located in the Damodar valley (West Bengal, Jharkhand), Jharia, Raniganj and Bokaro. The Godavari, Mahandi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits. Tertiary coals occur in the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

(b) Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?


India is a tropical country and therefore receives large amount of sunlight, which can be used for Solar energy. States such as Rajasthan, Gujarat, among others have large tracts of wasteland which receive huge amount, of sunlight and therefore can be used to build large scale solar plants. The government has subsidized the use of solar water heaters, solar lights, etc. which has increased their usage in high altitude regions, such as Ladakh, among others. There has also been a shift in government planning towards renewable sources of energy among which solar power has been prioritized.

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