NCERT Class 10 History Notes The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China

NCERT Class 10 History Notes The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China

The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China Class 10 History Notes is given here through which one can understand different topics present in the chapter in simple way. These Class 10 Notes can help you in tracking your progress anytime and provide complete assistance.

NCERT Class 10 History Notes The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China

CBSE The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China Class 10 Notes Social Science History

Emerging from the Shadow of China

1. Indo-China comprises the modern countries of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.

2. Vietnam gained formal independence in 1945 and the Republic of Vietnam was formed.

3. Even after independence, Chinese culture and systems of government were maintained in Vietnam.

Colonial Domination and Resistance

1. In 1858, French troops landed in Vietnam. By the mid-1880s they had established a firm grip over the northern region.

2. In 1887, French Indo-China was formed.

Why the French thought colonies necessary

1. Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods.

2. The French built canals and drainage lands in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation. This benefitted production and export of rice.

3. In 1931, Vietnam was the third largest exporter of rice in the world.

4. A trans-Indo-China rail network was built in order to adjoin the Northern and Southern parts of Vietnam and China. Vietnam was connected with other parts of China and Southeast Asia through railways.

How Vietnam developed as a Colony

1. Primarily, Vietnam was based on rice cultivation and rubber plantations owned by the French and small Vietnamese elite.

2. Rail and port facilities provided services to this economy.

3. Indentured Vietnamese labour was used in the rubber plantations.

4. Rural areas experienced landlordism and decline in the standard of living.

Should Colonies be developed?

1. Paul Bernard, an influential writer and policy – maker, strongly believed that the economy of the colonies needed to be developed.

2. There were several barriers to economies growth in Vietnam.

3. Labourers worked on the basis of contracts that did not specify any right of labourers but gave immense power to employers.

The Dilemma of colonial education

1. French colonialist in Vietnam believed that only they can civilize the local people by introducing modern education in the country.

2. French started a “Civilizing Mission” in Vietnam even if this meant destroying local cultures, religions and traditional, because these were seen as outdated and prevented modern development.

3. The French needed an educated local labour force but they feared that education might create problems.

4. French citizens living in Vietnam (called colons) began fearing that they might lose their jobs – as a teacher, shopkeepers, policemen – to the educated Vietnamese.

Talking Modern

1. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labour but not intellectual reflection.

2. They could work in the field but not rule themselves.

3. They were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative.

Looking Modern

1. The education included classes in science, hygiene and French.

2. It was not enough to learn science and Western ideas: to be modern the Vietnamese had to also look modern.

Resistance in schools

1. Teachers and student did not blindly follow the curriculum but they subtly modified and criticized the texts.

2. Students fought against the colonial government‟s efforts in providing the posts of white-collar jobs only for the French.

3. By the 1920s, students were forming various political parties, such as the Party of Young Annan.

4. School thus became an important place for political and cultural battles.

5. The control of education they tried to change the values, norms and perceptions of the people to make them believe in the superiority of French civilization and the inferiority of the Vietnamese.

Hygiene, disease and everyday Resistance

Plague strike Hanoi

1. The French part of Hanoi was built as a beautiful and clean city.

2. In 1903, the modern part of Hanoi was struck by bubonic plague.

3. The sewers also served as a great transport system, allowing the rats to move around the city.

The Rat Hunt

1. To counter this, a rat hunt was started in 1902.

2. The French hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught.

3. The dirty work of entering sewers found if they came together they could negotiate a higher bounty.

4. The French were forced to scrap the bounty programme.

5. The contradictions in their ‘civilising mission’.

6. The rat catchers took to just clipping the tails and releasing the rats.

7. Some people, in fact, began raising rats to earn a bounty.

Religion and Anti-Colonialism

1. Colonial domination was exercised by control overall areas of private and public life.

2. Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism Confucianism and local practices.

3. The elites in Vietnam were educated in Chinese and Confucianism.

4. French introduced Christianity in Vietnam.

Scholars' Revolt of 1868

• This revolt was led by officials of the Imperial Court.

• Uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces killed a thousand Catholics.

• By the middle of the 18th century, 300,000 people converted to Christianity.

• Revolt suppressed by the French.

Hoa Hao Movement

• The Hoa Hao Movement began in 1939 under its founder Huynh Phu So.

• He criticised useless expenditure and opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium.

• The French declared him mad and sent him to a mental asylum.

• He was freed in 1946, but exiled to Laos and his followers sent to concentration camps.

The Vision of modernization

1. Regarding modernisation and nationalism two opinions held:
• Vietnamese traditions had to be strengthened to resist western domination.
• The second felt that Vietnam had to learn from the West even while opposing foreign domination.

2. Phan Boi Chau was a Confucian Scholar and a nationalist. He formed the Revolutionary Society in 1903.

3. Phan Chu Trinh was against monarchy and wished to establish a democratic republic. He did not want a wholesale rejection of Western civilisation.

Other ways of Becoming modern: Japan and China

1. In the first decade of the twentieth century a ‘go east movement’ became popular.

2. The puppet emperor and re – established th Nquyen dynasty.

3. The Japanese as fellow Asians Japan had modernised itself and had resisted colonisation by the West.

4. Its victory over Russia in 1907 proved its military capabilities.

5. In 1911, the long established monarchy in china was overthrown by a popular movement under sun Yat–sen, and a republic was set up.

6. The association for the Restoration of Vietnam

7. The objective was no longer to set up a constitutional monarchy but a democratic republic.

The Communist movement and Vietnamese Nationalism

1. The Great Depression of the 1930s led to unemployment, debts and rural uprisings in Vietnam.

2. In February 1930, Ho Chi Minh established the Vietnamese Communist Party.

3. In 1940, Japan occupied Vietnam.

4. The League for the Independence of Vietnam (known as the Viet Minh) fought the Japanese, recaptured Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh became the chairman of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in September 1943.

The New Republic of Vietnam

1. The French tried to regain control by using the emperor. Bao Dai, as their puppet.

2. The French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.

3. In the peace negotiations in Geneva after the French defeat led to the spilt of Vietnam into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
• North Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh and the communist took control of North Vietnam.
• South Vietnam: Bao Dai's regime was established in South Vietnam.

4. The Bao Dai regime was overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Dinh Diem.

5. Diem built a dictatorial government which was opposed by a broad opposition united under the banner of the National Liberation Front (NLF).

6. NLF received help from North Vietnam with which they fought for the unification of the country.

The Entry of the U.S. into the War (1965 to 1972)

1. The US feared communists gaining power in South Vietnam therefore, they intervened by sending in their troops.

2. Thousands of US troops arrived with heavy weapons and tanks. Chemical weapons such as Napalm, Agent Orange and Phosphorus were used for destroying Vietnamese villages.

3. Many were critical of the government for getting involved in war that they saw as indefensible.

4. Service in the armed forces was made compulsory for all the US citizens except for university graduates.

5. The determination of Vietnamese gave them the courage to fight with the most technologically advanced country in the world.

The Ho Chi Minh Trail

1. The trail, an immense network of footpaths and roads, was used to transport men and materials from the north to the south.

2. The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. Supplies were mainly transported by porters who were mainly women.

3. The US bombed these trials regularly but to no avail as they were built again very quickly by the Vietnamese.

The nation and Its Heroes

Women as Rebels

1. The lower classes but they had only limited freedom to determine their future and played no role in public life.

2. A new image of womanhood emerged.

3. A woman leaving a forced marriage and marrying someone of her choice.

Heroes of past Times

1. In 1913,  Phan Boi Chau wrote a play on the lives of the Trung sisters who had fought against the Chinese domination in 39-43CE.

2. Trung sisters came to be idealized and glorified in paintings, plays and novels representing the indomitable will of the Vietnamese nationalists.

3. In 3rd century CE, Trieu Au, an orphan and lived with her brother. She left home, went into the jungles, organized a large army and resisted the Chinese rule. Ultimately, she was defeated by the Chinese forces after which she drowned herself. She became a sacred figure and not only a martyr.

Women as Warriors

1. In 1960s, various photographs and stories portrayed women as brave, young and dedicated.

2. Women were urged to join the struggle in large numbers.

3. Many women responded and joined the resistance movement.

4.. They built six airstrips, neutralised tens of thousands of bombs transported tens of thousands of kilograms of cargo.

The End of the War

1. The US had failed to achieve its objectives.

• This was a war that has been called the first television war because battle scenes were shown on the daily news programmes.

2. In January 1974: A peace settlement was signed in Paris which ended conflict with the US.

3. The National Liberation Front (NLF) occupied the presidential palace in Saigon on 30 April 1975 and unified Vietnam.

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