NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 1 Notes The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 1 Notes The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Here you will find Chapter 1 Notes The Rise of Nationalism in Europe NCERT Class 10 History Notes which will be helpful in knowing about the new topics and things. You can understand all the important given inside the chapter in less time.

NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 1 Notes The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

CBSE Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes Social Science History


1. In 1848, Frederic Sorrieu, a French artist, prepared a series of four print visualizing his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social republic, as he called them.

2. During the nineteenth century, nationalism brought changes in Political and mental world of Europe. This led to the creation of Nation-States in Europe in place of the multi-national dynastic empires of Europe.

3. A nation-state was one in which the majority of its citizens, and not only its rulers, came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent.

The French Revolution and the idea of the Nation

1. The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789.

2. Steps taken by French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people:
• Ideas of La patrie and Le citoyen
• New French Flag
• Estates General was elected and renamed National Assembly
• New hymns composed and oaths taken
• Centralized administration system
• Internal customs duties and dues were abolished
• Uniform system of weights and measures were introduced
• French became the common language.

3. The revolutionaries further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism.

4. The French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.

5. Napoleon Bonaparte ruled France from 1799 to 1815. He gained absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul. In 1804, he became Emperor of France.

6. Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field he had introduced revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.

7. The Civil Code of 1804 – usually known as the Napoleonic Code – did away with all privileges based on birth, established equality before the Law and secured the right to property.

8. Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.

9. Transport and communication systems were improved.

10. Napoleon took away political freedom, increased taxes, imposed censorship and forced people to join French army. Thus, this all seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.

The Making of Nationalism in Europe

1. No Nation states were in Europe because of not common identity or culture.

2. People residing in different areas spoke different languages.

The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class

1. Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent.

2. Their families were often connected by ties if marriages. This powerful aristocracy was, however, numerically a small group.

3. Due to Industrialisation, a new social groups came into being: a working-class population, and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professional.

4. It was among the educated, liberal middle classes that ideas of national unity following the abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.

What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for?

1. In early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free.

2. Liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.
• The end of autocracy and clerical privileges.
• A constitution and representative government through parliament.

3. In the economic sphere liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

4. Zollverein abolished tariff barriers, reduced the number of currencies to two, and promoted a network of railways to stimulate mobility.

A New Conservatism after 1815

1. Following the defect of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism.

2. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days.

3. They believed a modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.

Treaty of Vienna (1815)

1. In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.

2. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power, and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.

3. German confederation of 39 states that has been set up by Napoleon was left untouched.

4. Autocratic did not tolerate criticism and dissent, and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of autocratic government.

The Revolutionaries

1. During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal-nationalists underground.

2. Revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms and to fight for liberty and freedom.

3. Giuseppe Mazzini, born in Genoa in 1807, he became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari.

4. He was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.

5. Mazzini believed that god had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind.

6. Secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.

7. Metternich described him as ‘The most dangerous enemy of our social order’.

The Age of Revolution: 1830 - 1848

1. In July 1830, Bourbon kings of France were overthrown and a constitutional monarchy was established.

2. Belgium broke away from the United kingdoms of the Netherlands.

3. Greece which had been a part of the Ottomon Empire since the fifteenth century, struggled for independence. Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.

The Romantic Imagination and national Feeling

1. A cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment, criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused instead on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings.

2. German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder tried to discovered culture among common people, through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances.

Hunger, Hardship and Popular Revolt

1. The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe.

2. The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population.

3. In most countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment.

3. Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slum.

4. Food shortage and widespread unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads.
National Assembly proclaimed a republic, granted suffrage to all adult males above 21, and guaranteed the right to work.

1848: The Revolution of the Liberals

1. The revolution was led by educated middle classes who combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification.

2. On 18 May 1848, members of political association’s elected 831 representatives who took their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul and drafted a Constitution for the German nation.

3. It was opposed by King of Prussia and also lost its social basis as no rights were given to workers and women.

4. It forced the autocratic monarchs to introduce some changes – serfdom and bonded labour was abolished.

5. Monarchs were beginning to realize that the cycles if revolution and repression could be ended by granting concessions to the liberal-nationalist revolutionaries.

The Making of German and Italy

Germany

1. Otto Van Bismarck with the help of Prussian army and bureaucracy took on the leadership of the movement for national unification.

2. Three war over seven years ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.

3. Kaiser William I of Prussia headed the new German Empire.

Italy

1. Italy was divided into seven states of which only Sardinia Piedmont was ruled by an Italian Princely state.

2. Italian language had not acquired one common form and still had many regional and local variations.

3. Chief Miniser Cavour led the movement, with the help of Giuseppe Garibaldi.

4. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.

The strange case of Britain

1. In Britain, the formation of the nation state was not the result of a sudden upheaval but was
the result of a long-drawn-out process.

2. In 1688, England established as a nation state.

3. English parliament seized power from the monarchy.

4. The Act of Union 1707 resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.

5. In 1801, Ireland was forcibly taken by the British after the failed revolution.

6. A new ‘British Nation’ was founded through the propagation of a dominant English culture.

Visualising the Nation

1. Nations were then portrayed as a female figure.

• In France the allegory was christened as Marianne, in Germany – Germania became the allegory.

Nationalism and Imperialism

1. By the quarter of the nineteenth century nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment.

2. The most serious source of nationalists tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans.

3. The Balkans comprised modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.

4. Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation was under the control of the Ottomon Empire.

5. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of each other.

6. European powers were also looking for the extend their control over the area.

7. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally resulted in the First World War.

Post a Comment (0)
Previous Post Next Post