NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 2 Notes Nationalism in India

NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 2 Notes Nationalism in India

Chapter 2 Notes Nationalism in India NCERT Notes for Class 10 History will definitely useful in improving marks in the board examinations. These Class 10 Notes curated by our expert teachers who have vast experience of teaching students.

NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 2 Notes Nationalism in India

CBSE Chapter 2 Notes Nationalism in India Class 10 Social Science History

Introduction

1. Modern nationalism in Europe and formation of nation-states.

2. In India and many other colonies - growth of nationalism connected to the anti-colonial movement.

3. Oppression under colonial rule - a shared bond that tied different groups.

The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation

1. The First World War (1914-1918) created a new political and economic situation.

2. India faced various problems during war period:
• Increase in defence expenditure.
• Prices increased through the war years.
• Forced recruitment in rural areas.

3. Failure of crops created shortage of food.

4. In January 1915, Mahatma Gandhi returned to India.

5. Gandhiji introduced the idea of Satyagraha.
• Satyagraha is a novel way of fighting the colonial rule in India. It is a non-aggressive, peaceful mass agitation against oppression and injustice.

6. Gandhiji successfully organised Satyagraha Movements in Champaran, Bihar (1916), Kheda district of Gujarat (1917) and amongst cotton mill workers in Ahmedabad (1918).

7. The Rowlatt Act of 1919 gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

8. On 13th April 1919, Jallianwala Bagh massacre happened. As the news spread, strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings started. The government responded with brutal repression. Gandhi called off the Rowlatt satyagraha as the violence spread.

Khilafat Movement

1. Khilafat Movement was led by two brothers Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali; was founded to fight for Khilafat rights, and was against the harsh treatment given to the Khalifa, Emperor of the Turkish Empire, after the First World War.

2. Gandhiji convinced the Congress to join hands with the Khilafat Movement and start a Non-Cooperation Campaign for Swaraj.

3. Non-Cooperation with the British rule, programme adopted at the Nagpur Session of Congress in 1920.

Differing Strands within the Movement

1. The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January 1921. Many groups joined this movement for their own specific reasons.

2. Movement in Towns : Middle class took up the fight. Students, teachers, lawyers gave up studies, jobs, practice and joined it in thousands. Council elections boycotted. Foreign goods boycotted. Liquor shops picketed.

3. Movement in the countryside : Peasants and tribals took over the struggle which turned violent at times. In Awadh, Baba Ramchandra fought against landlords and talukdars. In 1920, Jawaharlal Nehru and Baba Ramchandra formed Oudh Kisan Sabha. In Andhra Pradesh : The peasants of Gudem Hills led a guerilla movement against the British. Their leader, Alluri Sitaram Raju, advocated use of force. He was captured and executed in 1924.

4. Movement in Plantations : Workers in Assam agitated to move freely, a protest against the Inland Emigration Act (1859) which prevented them from leaving the plantation without permission.

5. The Chauri-Chaura incident of 1922 made Gandhiji call off the movement.

Towards Civil Disobedience

1. In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.

2. Many leaders such as C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics.

3. Younger leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose pressed for more radical mass agitation and for full independence.

4. Two Factors that shaped Indian politics towards the late 1920s: The Worldwide Economic Depression and Simon Commission.

5. Agricultural prices collapsed after 1930 as the demand for agricultural goods fell and exports declined due to Worldwide Economic Depression.

6. Simon Commission was constituted by the Tory government of Britain to look into the demands of the nationalists and suggest changes in the constitutional structure of India. The Commission arrived in India in 1928. The Congress protested against this commission.

7. At the Lahore Session of the Congress in December 1929, the Congress adopted the resolution of
“Purna Swaraj” (Complete Swaraj) as its goal. 26th January, 1930 to be celebrated as Independence Day.

The Salt March and the Civil Disobedience Movement

1. Gandhiji gave the call for Civil Disobedience Movement and chose ‘Salt’ as the symbol of unity of the nation  as it is consumed by all the sections of the society.

2. Salt or Dandi March began on March 12, 1930. On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji reached Dandi, a village in Gujarat and broke the Salt Law by boiling water and manufacturing salt. Thus, it began the Civil Disobedience Movement.

3. It was different from Non-Cooperation Movement as people were now asked not only to refuse cooperation but also to break colonial laws.

4. Boycott of foreign goods, non-payment of taxes, breaking forest laws were its main features.

5. The British Government followed a policy of brutal repression. Arrested all the leaders including Gandhiji and Nehru. Nearly 100,000 people were arrested.

6. Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement and entered into pact with Irwin.

7. Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, signed a pact with Gandhiji on 5 March, 1931. Gandhiji agreed to attend the Second Round Table Conference and the British agreed to release all political prisoners.

8. Gandhiji returned from the Second Round Table Conference disappointed in December 1931. Civil Disobedience started again. However, by 1934 the Movement lost its momentum.

How Participants saw the Movement

1. To the countryside : Rich peasant communities expected the revenue tax to be reduced, when the British refused to do so, they did not rejoin the movement in 1932.

2. The Peasants Rich peasant communities expected the revenue tax to be reduced, when the British refused to do so, they did join the movement. They did not rejoin the movement as the movement was called without revising the revenue rates. The poor peasants wanted rents of lands to be remitted. The Congress was unwilling to support the “no rent” campaigns due to the fear of upsetting the rich peasants and landlords.

3. The Business Classes: After the war, their huge profits were reduced, wanted protection  against import of foreign goods. The failure of the Round Table Conference, curbed their enthusiasm for the Civil Disobedience Movement.

4. The industrial working class: They joined because of low wages and poor working conditions. Congress was reluctant to include workers’ demands as it would alienate the industrialists.

5. Women: In 1930, women entered the struggle for Independence on a massive scale. During Gandhiji’s Dandi March, they joined protest marches, picketed foreign clothes and shops. But Congress did not encourage them or gave them important posts in the organisation.

Limits of Civil Disobedience

1. The Dalits or the Untouchables did not actively participate in the movement, they demanded reservation of seats, separate electorates. Dr B.R. Ambedkar, the leader of the Dalits, formed an association in 1930, called the Depressed Classes Association. He clashed with Gandhiji.

2. Gandhiji began a fast unto death against separate electorate. Finally Poona Pact between the two leaders (1932) gave reserved seats in Provincial and Central Councils but were voted by general electorate.

3. Muslim political organisations also kept away from the Movement.

4. Congress seemed more visibly associated with Hindu religious nationalist groups. The leader of the Muslim League M.A. Jinnah wanted reserved seats for Muslims in Central Assembly. Civil Disobedience Movement started in an atmosphere of distrust and suspicion between the two communities.

The Sense of Collective Belonging

1. Collective belonging comes through experiences of common struggles. A common history and fiction, through folklore, songs and popular prints and symbols.

2. Bharat Mata became the symbol of India.

3. Bakim Chandra Chattopadhyay created the image in his song “Vande Mataram” in his novel ‘Anand Math’ (1870s). Abanindranath Tagore painted Bharat Mata as a calm, composed, divine and spiritual figure.

4. Rabindranath Tagore of Bengal and Natesa Sastri of Madras compiled songs, ballads, myths and folklore.

5. Reinterpretation of History : Indians delved in the past history and discovered India’s greatness and achievements in mathematics, literature, religion, culture, philosophy, crafts and trade.

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