NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory Social Science

Here you will find NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory will provide you with adequate time to research and work on their assignments. These NCERT Solutions for students help them with their research in analyzing problems and answering it with precision and the right concepts. Students get the chance to double check their answers and learn how well they're grasping what they need to know.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory

Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History

Let’s recall

1. Match the following:

Diwani Tipu Sultan
“Tiger of Mysore” Right to Collect Land Revenue
Faujdari Adalat Sepoy
Rani Channamma Criminal Court
Sipahi Led an anti-British Movement in Kitoor


Diwani Right to Collect Land Revenue
“Tiger of Mysore” Tipu Sultan
Faujdari Adalat Criminal Court
Rani Channamma Led an anti-British Movement in Kitoor
Sipahi Sepoy

2. Fill in the blanks: 
(a) The British conquest in began with the battle of ________.
(b) Haidar Ali & Tipu Sultan were the rulers of _________.
(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of _________.
(d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the _________part of India.


(a) Plassey
(b) Mysore
(c) Lapse
(d) Southern

3. State whether true or false:
(a) The Mughal Empire became stronger in the eighteenth century.
(b) The English East India Company was the only European Company that traded with India.
(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab.
(d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered.


(a) False
(b) False
(c) True
(d) False

4. What attracted European trading companies to India?


European trading companies were attracted to India because of a number of reasons:
• Trading with India was highly profitable and fruitful to the businessmen in Europe. 
• The European trading companies purchased goods at cheaper and sold them in Europe at higher prices. 
• The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe.
• Indian spices like - pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon were in great demand in Europe.

5. What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal Nawabs and the East India Company?


In the 18th century, after the death of Aurangzeb, the Bengal Nawabs asserted their power and autonomy as other regional powers were doing at that time. They refused to grant the company further concessions, demanding large tributes for giving them right to trade. These Nawabs also denied the company from having any rights to mint coins and stopped it from expanding its defenses. The Nawab accused the company for depriving them of huge amounts of revenues and undermining their authority.

The company was refusing to pay taxes and writing disrespectful letters and trying to humiliate the Nawab. The company also declared that the unjust demands of the local officials were ruining the trade, which could flourish only if the duties were removed.

6. How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?


The Diwani right to the East India Company benefited it in several ways:
• The Diwani allowed the company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal.
• Earlier the company needed to buy most of their goods in India in exchange for gold and silver. After the assumption of Diwani, the company started to purchase the goods in India with these revenues, as a result of which the outflow of gold and silver from Britain entirely stopped.
• Now the revenues from India could be used to purchase cotton and silk textiles and also meet various expenses including maintaining the troops, meet the cost of building the company fort and offices at Calcutta.

7. Explain the “Subsidiary Alliance”?


After the battle of Plassey in 1757, the battle of Buxar in 1764 and gaining the Diwani of Bengal, Company began to expand its rule in many parts of India. For that it had devised several plans, one among them was the “Subsidiary Alliance”. According to the terms of this alliance:
• Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces.  
• They were to be protected by the company but pay for the Subsidiary Forces, that the company was supposed to maintain for the purpose of their protection. 
• If the Indian rulers failed to make payment, then that part of territory was taken away by the company as penalty.
For example, In 1801, the Nawab of Awadh was forced to give over half of his territory to the company as he failed to pay for the subsidiary forces.

8. In what way was the administration of the company different from that of Indian rulers?


• British Presidencies were divided into administrative units called presidencies. There were three Presidencies like Bengal, Madras & Bombay and for the Indian ruler's administration was divided into four parts - District (Zila), Tehsil, & Village.
• Each administrative unit was ruled by a Governor. 
• The supreme head of the administration was the Governor-General, whereas under the Indian • Administrative system the supreme head was King of Nawab. 
• Warren Hastings introduced the new system of justice. Each district was to have two courts- civil & criminal court.
• The European District Collector presided over civil courts. 
• The criminal courts were still under a Qazi and a Mufti. 
• Under the Regulating Act of 1773, a new supreme court was established. 
• The main figure in an Indian District was Collector. 
• According to his title Collector, his main job was to collect the revenue and the taxes and maintain law and order in his district with the help of judges, police officers and darogas.

9. Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the company’s army.


Along with introducing new ideas of administration and reform, the company gradually introduced many changes in its army. Earlier the Mughal Army was mainly composed of cavalry and infantry, who were actually recruited from peasants and were given training in archery and sword.

The Mughals never tried to modernize their army according to the changing period. At first when the East India Company began recruitment for its own army, it adopted the same method as the Mughals which was known as the Sepoy Army.

They also modernized their army with small tanks and guns. With the change in warfare technology, requirements of infantry regiments became more important than the cavalry requirements.

In the early 19th century, the British began to introduce a uniform military culture in which soldiers were increasingly subjected to European-style of training, drill and discipline. These regulated their lives far more than before.

But this often created problems. It ignored the caste and community feelings that were in building a force of professional soldiers in India. It also ignored the Indian soldiers' salaries and treatment like their British counterparts.

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