NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 9 The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 Social Science

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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 9 The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947

Chapter 9 The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History

Let’s recall

1. Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?


People were dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s due to the following reasons:

• The British passed the Arms Act in 1878 which disallowed Indians from possessing arms.

• In 1878, the government passed the Vernacular Press Act. It allowed the government to confiscate the assets of newspapers including their printing presses if they published anything that was critical of the government.

• In 1883, the Ilbert Bill was introduced. The bill provided for trials by British or European people by Indians and sought equality between British and Indian judges in the country. But, due to the white opposition, the government withdrew this bill.

2. Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?


The Indian National Congress spoke for all the people of India, irrespective of class, color caste, creed, language, or gender. It stated that India was not a nation of one community or group but of all communities in India.

3. What economic impact did the First World War have on India?


• The First World War led to a huge increase in taxes on individual incomes and business profits. The government in turn increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits.

• Increased military expenditure and the demands for war supplies led to a sharp rise in prices which created great difficulties for the common people. They found it difficult to fulfil even their essential needs.

• The war created a demand for industrial goods such as jute bags, cloth and rails, and caused a decline in the imports from other countries into India. As a result, Indian industries expanded during this period.

4. What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?


The Muslim League resolution of 1940 asked for "independent states" for Muslims in the North-Western and Eastern areas of the country.

5. Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?


The Moderates opposed taking extreme actions. They had deep faith in the good intention of the government. They knew that slowly and steadily they would make the British go to their own land.
The proposed methods to struggle against the British government:
• The demands were presented to the British through petitions, meetings, speeches and resolutions.
• They published newspapers, wrote articles and showed how the British rule was leading to the economic ruin of the country.
• Their whole attitude was of reconciliation and not confrontation.
• They would do nothing which would offend the British rulers.

6. How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?


The radicals advocated mass mobilisation and boycott of British institutions and goods. Some individuals also began to suggest that “revolutionary violence” would be necessary to overthrow British rule. Moderates, on the other hand, wanted to follow the rules and law and order posed by the British. They followed the practices of prayers which radicals totally opposed.

7. Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?


The Non-Cooperation Movement spread far and wide. It took various forms in different parts of the country:

• In Kheda, Gujarat, Patidar peasants were worried about the high land revenue demand of the British. Hence, they orgainsed non-violent campaigns against it.

• In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed.

• In the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants started several ‘forest satyagrahas’, sometimes sending their cattle into forests without paying grazing tax. They were very much fed up with the restrictions imposed on them by the British regarding the use of forest resources. They wanted the abolition of the forest regulations.

• In Sind, now in Pakistan, Muslim traders and peasants were very enthusiastic about the Khilafat call. In Bengal too, the Khilafat-Non-Cooperation alliance gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement.

• In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to drive out corrupt mahants, supported by the British, from the gurudwaras. This movement got closely identified with the Non-Cooperation Movement.

• In Assam, tea garden labourers left the British owned plantations and became the followers of Gandhiji. People viewed Gandhiji as a messiah, as someone who could help them overcome their misery and poverty.

8. Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?


Gandhiji chose to break the salt law because it was a monopoly of the British government, and it had a tax on the sale of salt. Gandhi believed that taxing salt was sinful because food is an essential part of life. He led a march to the coastal town of Dandi where he broke the salt law by gathering natural sea salt found on the seashore, and boiling seawater to produce salt. The march united the poor and rich in a common cause, bringing together the general desire for freedom with a specific grievance.

9. Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.


The developments leading to the creation of Pakistan were:

• A two-nation theory: Initially the Muslim league never mentioned Pakistan to be the nation of Muslims. However, since the 1930s, it started demanding a separate country for Muslims.

• Provincial elections of 1937: The elections were a decisive factor for the Muslim league to decide that Muslims are a minority in India and they have to have a separate nation for them for their just representation in politics.

• Tiff between congress and Muslim league: When congress rejected the Muslim league’s offer for a joint congress-league government in united provinces, the league decided to part ways forever.

• Failed talks: No discussion could turn out to be successful where both Congress and Muslim league come to a conclusion of only one nation. British too at the end of the 2nd world war opened negotiation talks with both congress and league however it turned futile.

• Provincial elections of 1946: Muslim league’s spectacular victory on the seats reserved for Muslims gave the confidence to create a separate nation.

• Mass agitation: The failure of cabinet mission 1946 led to the mass agitation led by the Muslim league. Partition was finalised and Pakistan was born.

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