NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 6 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 6 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners Social Science

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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History Chapter 6 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners

Chapter 6 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners NCERT Solutions for Class 8 History


Let’s recall

1. What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?

Solution

Chintz, cossaes or khassa and bandanna.

2. What is jamdani?

Solution

Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom, typically in grey and white.

3. What is bandanna?

Solution

Bandanna is a brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. The term originally derived from the word ‘bandhna’ and referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of tying and dying.

4. Who are the Agarias?

Solution

The Agarias are an Indian community of iron smelters.

5. Fill in the blanks: 

(a) The word chintz comes from the word __________.

(b) Tipu's sword was made of _________ steel. 

(c) India's textile exports declined in the _________ century.

Solution

(a) chhint.

(b) Wootz steel.

(c) nineteenth century.

Let's Discuss 

6. How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?

Solution

• European traders first encountered a cotton cloth from India carried by Arab merchants in present-day Iraq. So they began referring to all finely woven textiles as muslin. The word quickly acquired wide currency.

• Portuguese sailors first came to India in search of spices and landed in the southern part of Kerala in South West India. The textiles they brought back were known as “Coco” (derived from Calicut) and subsequently, all cotton textiles became known as “Calico.”

• Chintz is derived from the Hindi word chhint, a cloth with small and colourful flowery designs.

• Bandanna now refers to any brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. Originally the term derived from the word “bandana” (Hindi for tying).

7. Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century? 

Solution

By the early eighteenth century, worried about the popularity of Indian textiles, wool and silk makers in England began protesting against the import of Indian cotton textiles. At this time, English textile industries had just begun to develop. Unable to compete with Indian textiles, English producers wanted a secure market within their country by preventing entry of Indian textiles.

8. How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?

Solution

The development of cotton industries in Britain badly affected textile producers in India:

• Indian textiles now had to compete with British textiles in the European and American markets.

• Exporting textiles to England became increasingly difficult since very high duties were imposed on Indian textiles imported into Britain.

• Thousands of weavers in India became unemployed. Bengal weavers were the worst hit.

• By the 1830s British cotton cloth flooded Indian markets. This affected not only specialist weavers but also spinners.

9. Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?

Solution

The Indian iron smelting industry declined in the nineteenth century for the following reasons:

• The forest laws implemented by the colonial administration made it difficult for residents of reserved forests, including those in traditional indigenous territories, to gather firewood and charcoal.

• The iron smelters paid a high amount in tax to the forest department for every furnace they used. The amount of money taken from the company for use of public resources was too high, which led to a decrease in income.

• By the late nineteenth century, steel was being imported from Britain. Iron smiths began using the imported steel to manufacture utensils and implements. This reduced the demand for locally produced iron.

• In the late nineteenth century, a series of famines devastated the dry tracts of India. As a result, many of the local smelters stopped work, deserted their villages, and migrated, looking for some other way to survive the hard times.

10. What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?

Solution

The development of cotton industries in Britain affected textile producers in India in several ways:

• Indian textiles now had to comply with British textiles in the European and American markets. Exporting textiles to England also became increasingly difficult since very high duties were imposed on Indian textiles imported into Britain.

• By the beginning of the nineteenth century, English made cotton textiles successfully outsets Indian goods from their traditional markets in Africa, America, and Europe.

• Thousands of weavers in India were now thrown out of employment.

• Bengal weavers were the worst hit. English and European companies stopped buying Indian goods and their agents no longer gave out advances to weavers to secure supplies. Distressed weavers wrote petitions to the government to help them.

• The textile factory industry in India faced many problems. It found it difficult to compete with the cheap textiles imported from Britain.

• In most countries, governments supported industrialization by imposing heavy duties on imports. This eliminated competition and protected infant industries.

11. What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?

Solution

India imported steel for rails during the First World War. However, during the war, demands of all steel increased in Europe. So, imports of British steel into India decreased and Indian Railways turned to TISCO  for supply of rails. As the war dragged on for several years, TISCO had to produce shells and carriage wheels for the war. By 1919 the colonial government was buying 90% of the steel manufactured by TISCO. Over time TISCO became the biggest industry within the British empire.

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